Allium sativum  
 


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Botanical Name :  Allium sativum
Commun Name : 
Garlic
Flowering period :
August - November
Description :
Annual, glabrous, bulbous herb with pungent odor. Bulb consists of several smaller bulbs (called cloves) and is surrounded by a thin, white or pinkish sheath. Leaves flat and narrow, attenuate-acute at the apex; nerves parallel. Flowers white or pink with bulbils in globes head covered with a large bract.
Action : 
The volatile oil contains allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate), an active odorous principle in Garlic.The extracts of Allium sativum bulb and compound preparation possess pharmacodynamic properties.
Part used : The bulbs, collected at the end of winter or the beginning of spring, are used in fresh or dried form.
 
Photo: Aganosma marginata leaves flowers
Chemical components : The essential oil obtained from the bulbs contains allicin, diallyl disulfide, allyl propyl disulfide and other sulfur compounds.
Garlic appears to exert numerous effects on the cardiovascular system, and Atherosclerosis in particular, beyond the reduction of serum lipids. There are possibly multiple protective effects of garlic, including inhibition of platelet aggregation and enhancement of fibrinolysis. Wild garlic (Allium ursinum) has been reported to contain similar amounts of sulfur-containing compounds (thiosulfinates and ajoenes) as garlic (Allium sativum), and to exert similar effects on cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, angiotensin converting enzyme, and platelet aggregation.
Lipid-lowering Effects; garlic's lipid lowering effects may occur via inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase or other enzymes, possibly by diallyl di- and trisulphide components of garlic. Other suggested mechanisms include increased loss of bile salts in feces and mobilization of tissue lipids into circulation, as garlic has a profound effect on post-prandial hyperlipidemia. Wild garlic (Allium ursinum) has shown similar efficacy to garlic (Allium sativum) in decreasing hepatocyte cholesterol synthesis In vitro. Aged garlic extract and its constituents have been shown to inhibit Cu2+-induced oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein.38 Aged garlic extract and its constituent S-allylcysteine have been found to protect vascular endothelial cells from injury caused by oxidized LDL.
Vascular Effects; vasorelaxant properties of garlic have been noted in multiple pre-clinical studies. Cutaneous microperfusion is increased in humans following ingestion of 600mg of garlic, and vasodilation of conjunctival arterioles and venules occurs at 900mg. Garlic may act on the nitric oxide system and exert effects on the elastic properties of vasculature, yielding changes in systemic blood pressure. It has been suggested that allicin is the component of garlic responsible for nitric oxide-mediated effects. Prostaglandins have been identified in garlic extracts which may exert pharmacologic effects, although this has not been demonstrated in vivo.
   
Therapeutic uses : The bulb constitutes an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic remedy. It is employed in the treatment of bacillary dysentery and amoebiasis. A rectal injection of 100 ml of 5 to 10% solution is effective for oxyuriasis and colitis. The 20% tincture cures cough, bronchitis and pertussis. The aqueous solution of bulb juice in a nasal instillation and a gruel made with the bulbs are active on coryza and influenza. It is also hypocholesterolaemic and thus useful in hyper-cholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. A poultice of pounded bulb is used to treat boils, abscesses, phlegmons and centipede bites. The extract of garlic was found to have a significant protective action against a fat induced increase in serum cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen and in fibrinolytic activity.  

All herbs

Adenosma indianum - Aegle marmelos Correa - Aganosma marginata - Adenosma indianum - Allium satium - Allium tuberosum - Aloe vera - Alpinia galanga - Alpinia officinarum - Alstonia scholaris - Amomum krervanh - Andrographis paniculata - Arachis hypogaea - Boesenbergia pandurata - Bridelia burmanica - Canaga odorata - Capsicum annuum - Capsicum frutescens - Carica papaya - Carthamus tinctorius  - Cassia angustifolia - Cassia tora - Centella asiatica - Cinnamomum cassia - Clitoria ternatea - Coriandrum sativum - Curcuma Longa - Cymbopogon citratus - Eclipta prostrata - Elettaria cardamomum - Equisetum arvense  - Ganoderma lucidum - Ginkgo biloba - Glycine max - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis - Illicium verum - Jasmine - Lycium barbarum - Medicago sativa - Momordica charantia - Morinda officinalis - Moringa oliefera - Myristica fragrans - Nelumbo nucifera - Ocymum basilicum - Panax ginseng - Perilla frutescens - Phaseolus vulgaris - Phyllanthus emblica - Piper nigrum - Plumeriaalba - Plantago ovata - Ricinus - Sesamum indicum - Styrax tonkinense - Sassafras - Terminalia chebula  - Tribulus terrestris  - Zingiber officinale

Resources
:
- Lavit KHAM  B.Sc (Chemistry),B.Pharm, MPS,MAACP, MNHAA
Medicinal Plants of Cambodia Habitat, Chemical constituents and Ethno botanical Uses
Bendigo Scientific Press   ISBN 0-646-43703-8  / 9780646437033
- Somanith BOUAMANIVONG & Onvilay SOURIYA Ministry of Health, Traditional Medicine Research Center, Editor Prof. Dr. Bouhong SOUTHAVONG, Vientiane 2005.
- Lily, M. PERRY. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia, London, England 1978
- WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No 2
- Jules VIDAL, Noms vernaculaires de plantes (LAO, MEO, KHA) 1959
- Medicinal Plants in China 1989
- C. Pierce SALGUERO A Thai Herbal, Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony, 2005
Silkworm Books www.silkwormbooks.info   ISBN 974-9575-74-1 

Acknowledgements:
- Dr. Sabine WILKINS Plant Physiology & Dr. Pauline Mc CABE Naturopathy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria Australia.
-
Prof. Roger KING, Pharmacology Toxicology, Monash University, Australia.
-
Chea SOK MENG, Cambodian pharmacist
-
Prof, Ka SUNBAUNAT Cambodian psychiatrist, Vice Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Phnom Penh.

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